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like these are indeed new, and are it reflection of the love of Indonesian society for their heroes. Further, besides dance-dramas there are also a great number of individual or group dances which express the daily lives of the members of society and embody the spirit of mutual cooperation, Such as the peasant dance, the weaver dance, the fisherman dance, find others. There are even dances reflecting the struggle of national heroes defending their independence, such as the guerilla dance, the patriot dance and the warrior dance. These new dances are clear indications that Indonesian dancing is alive, advancing and developing.


This development of dancing is especially striking in Java and Bali. This does not mean, however, that dancing in other regions of Indonesia is not undergoing any development.
Indeed, from the point of view of their places of origin there are dozens of various styles of dancing and even hundreds of different kinds and types in Indonesia. For instance, we have the Surakarta style, the Yogyakarta style, the Sunda style and the East Java style in Java. In Bali, there are the North Bali style and the South Bali style. Thus in these two islands alone, Indonesia has six styles of dancing, and in these six styles there are dozens of different kinds and types,

 

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Considering the various styles of Indonesian dancing it is obvious that almost each region in Indonesia which, has developed its own dancing and is historically advanced, has a dance style of its own. Surakarta has Surakarta (Solo) style, Yogyakarta has the Yogyakarta style and so on with other regions. This does not mean however that the Surakarta (Solo) style develops only in and can be enjoyed only by the Surakarta society, that the Yogyakarta style develops only in and can be enjoyed only by the Yogyakarta society, or that the Bali style is spiritual nourishment only for Balinese society. No, not at all. Many Yogyakarta people or dancers learn the Surakarta style, the Sunda style, the Bali style, the Sumatra style, the Sulawesi style and so on. Similarly people or dancers from Jakarta learn the Surakarta style, the Yogyakarta style, the Bali style, the Sumatra style and other styles. This really proves that though Indonesia has dozens of dance styles, the names of which indicate their places or origin, each Indonesian considers the whole as Indonesian dancing belonging to the whole Indonesian nation. This is,Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Unity in Diversity) in Indonesian dancing.

We can also see the characteristic qualities of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika from the influence that one style of particular region has upon another style from a different region. For instance, some Yogyanese choreographers at present when composing a new dance composition often take elements of dancing movements from the style of other region or even melodies accompanying the dances.; are also taken from melodies from other region.

In complete harmony with the dual quality of -dancing with its individual quality on the one hand and social quality on the other, there seems to be an element of contradiction in dancing, the two qualities opposing one another. In fact, if the two qualities were separated, so that dancing were then only an expression of the human soul with an individual quality, or dancing were only beautiful rhythmical movements with a social quality, it ' would be obvious that these two qualities do oppose one another. But in reality, the two qualities, the individual and the social, are so closely interrelated that the two do not actually oppose one another.

''. Dancing, as the expression of the human soul by: means of beautiful rhythmical movements contains the implication of a social

 

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